1st.ed., 1994. Xxvi + 532 pp., 34 photo-plates & 6 maps. D.j., 24 x 16cm. FINE. A major and highly detailed account of the Russian convoys of World War II during which the Allies supplied arms and ammunition to Soviet Russia to enable them to beat off German invasion. It was a supply line Germany had to destroy if it was going to win the war and they concentrated a large force of U-boats, capital ships and bombers to attack without warning. The casualties in terms of merchant ships and their naval escorts were high ; the amount of time a seaman could withstand the freezing Arctic seas was no more than a couple of minutes. The author examines each and every convoy over those four hard years, including the debacle of PQ.17, the sinking of the SCHARNHORST, and the last wartime convoys against which the Germans threw all that they had in one final desperate attempt to stop them. However, it was too late, Russian troops had already reached the gates of Berlin and the sacrifice of so many British, American and other allied seamen and their British naval escorts had not been in vain. Illustrated with 34 photographs and 6 maps.