1st.ed., 1977. 320 pp., illsd-title + 95 other ills. D.j., 24 x 16cm. FINE. The Lower-Deck of Queen Victoria’s Navy was no place for the faint-hearted. This is a vivid portrait of Jack’s life and his rise in status in the eyes of the British public during the 19th century. Technical changes at this time came thick and fast, especially during the second half of the 1880s, but reform below decks was painful and slow and a sailor of Nelson’s time would have found many of his surroundings and daily routine largely unchanged. As steam replaced sail, and iron and steel replaced wood, some improvements in the sailor’s conditions followed in their wake. Flogging, for example, was abolished, pay increased, and the rum ration – the cause of so many problems on board ship – was reduced. Nevertheless, the life of a sailor remained a harsh and dangerous experience, and in this social history, the late John Winton examines the sailor’s lot in Queen Victoria’s Navy. FINE copy.