J. D. Potter, 19th ed., Revised & Enlarged, 1891. Xxv + 376 pp., numerous diagrams & tables in text. Contemporary half-calf ; raised bands ; gilt ; pebble-grain cloth boards ; speckled edges. 24 x 16cm. Calf rubbed ; rubber stamp of a Staffordshire solicitor (James E. Moxon) o/w V.G. Dedicated to Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, Hydrographer to the Admiralty, Raper's work was first published in 1840 and remained in print of the rest of the 19th century and beyond. Lieutenant Raper's book was designed for use at sea in the navigation of ships, and for those ashore with the wish to establish latitude and longitude. Raper served in the "golden age" of practical navigation and nautical surveying, in constant communication with Beaufort and Horsburgh, as well as naval captain and merchant masters with a thorough knowledge of the sea, especially in English and Indian waters. The coming of steam and the introduction of iron in shipbuilding (with its major influence on navigation) rendered whole chapters to be re-written by 1891. On the Navigation side, the book describes instruments of navigation, the sailings, taking departures, charts, soundings, and the ship's journal. On Nautical Astronomy, it covers instruments, taking observations, subordinate computations, finding latitude, finding the time, finding longitude, variations of the compass, tides, etc. The final part of the book deals with navigating the ship, making land, etc.