1st.Eng.ed., 1996. Xiv + 273 pp., 19 photo-ills & 14 maps. D.j., 23 x 16cm. FINE. It is generally accepted that Japanese submarines were not as effective as those operated by the Germans, Americans or British during the war. For the first time an American naval historian and a Japanese sailor have carried out a detailed evaluation, including making use of material only recently declassified, focusing their examination on US wartime intercepts of secret Japanese radio messages and official Japanese sources. They research back to the development of the first Japanese 'Holland' type submarine of 1905, continuing down to 1945 with the surrender of the largest submarine in the world ' the 5,300-ton I-400 which carried three aircraft ! The authors also examine submarine weapons, equipment, crews, shore support systems, preparations for war and Japanese submarine operations 1941-1945. The Appendices list Japanese submarine losses and biographies of key submariners.